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Paul Magriel was a key witness for the defence, contradicting Dr. Roger Nelson, the expert prosecution witness, by saying, "Game theory, however, really applies to games with imperfect knowledge, where something is concealed, such as poker.
Backgammon is not such a game. Everything is in front of you. The person who uses that information in the most effective manner will win.
After the closing arguments, Judge Stephen S. Walker concluded that backgammon is a game of skill, not a game of chance, and found the defendant, backgammon tournament director Ted Barr, not guilty of promoting gambling.
Enthusiasts have formed clubs for social play of backgammon. A backgammon chouette permits three or more players to participate in a single game, often for money.
One player competes against a team of all the other participants, and positions rotate after each game. Chouette play often permits the use of multiple doubling cubes.
Backgammon clubs may also organize tournaments. Large club tournaments sometimes draw competitors from other regions, with final matches viewed by hundreds of spectators.
Winners at major tournaments may receive prizes of tens of thousands of dollars. Starting in January , tournament directors began awarding GammonPoints,  a free points registry for tournament directors and players, with GammonPoint awards based on the number of players and strength of field.
The first world championship competition in backgammon was held in Las Vegas , Nevada in Tim Holland was declared the winner that year and at the tournament the following year.
For unknown reasons, there was no championship in , but in , Tim Holland again won the title. In , Lewis Deyong, who had promoted the Bahamas World Championship for the prior three years, suggested that the two events be combined.
By the 21st century, the largest international tournaments had established the basis of a tour for top professional players. Major tournaments are held yearly worldwide.
PartyGaming sponsored the first World Series of Backgammon in from Cannes and later the 'Backgammon Million' tournament held in the Bahamas in January with a prize pool of one million dollars, the largest for any tournament to date.
The event was recorded for television in Europe airing on Eurosport. In , the WBA collaborated with the online backgammon provider Play65 for the season of the European Backgammon Tour and with "Betfair" in At the 43rd World Backgammon Championship in Monte Carlo,  former radio talk show host Larry Shiller began color-commenting matches as the Voice of Backgammon,  with archived videos on Twitch  and YouTube.
When backgammon is played for money , the most common arrangement is to assign a monetary value to each point, and to play to a certain score, or until either player chooses to stop.
The stakes are raised by gammons, backgammons, and use of the doubling cube. Backgammon is sometimes available in casinos.
Before the commercialization of artificial neural network programs, proposition bets on specific positions were very common among backgammon players and gamblers.
Backgammon software has been developed not only to play and analyze games, but also to facilitate play between humans over the internet.
Dice rolls are provided by random or pseudorandom number generators. Real-time online play began with the First Internet Backgammon Server in July ,   but there are now a range of options;  many of which are commercial.
Backgammon has been studied considerably by computer scientists. Neural networks and other approaches have offered significant advances to software for gameplay and analysis.
The first strong computer opponent was BKG 9. Early versions of BKG played badly even against poor players, but Berliner noticed that its critical mistakes were always at transitional phases in the game.
He applied principles of fuzzy logic to improve its play between phases, and by July , BKG 9. It won the match, 7—1, becoming the first computer program to defeat a world champion in any board game.
Berliner stated that the victory was largely a matter of luck, as the computer received more favorable dice rolls.
In the late s, backgammon programmers found more success with an approach based on artificial neural networks.
Its neural network was trained using temporal difference learning applied to data generated from self-play.
Tesauro proposed using rollout analysis to compare the performance of computer algorithms against human players.
The rollout score of the human or the computer is the difference of the average game results by following the selected move versus following the best move, then averaged for the entire set of taken moves.
The strength of these programs lies in their neural networks' weights tables, which are the result of months of training.
Without them, these programs play no better than a human novice. For the bearoff phase, backgammon software usually relies on a database containing precomputed equities for all possible bearoff positions.
Computer-versus-computer competitions are also held at Computer Olympiad events. Backgammon is one of the oldest games in existence.
Its history can be traced back nearly 5, years to its origins in Mesopotamia modern-day Iraq. The world's oldest set of dice made from human bone were recently discovered in that part of the world.
Modern Iraqis continue to enjoy playing the game. It used tetrahedral dice. In the modern Middle East, backgammon is a common feature of coffeehouses.
Race board games involving dice have a long history in Iraq, including the Royal Game of Ur in Babylon. In the modern Arab Levant and Iraq it is called tawle which means table, and it is also called shesh besh shesh means 6 in Aramaic and Phoenician , but derives from Phoenician.
The artifacts included two dice and 60 checkers, and the set is believed to be to years older than the Royal Game of Ur.
On the board found in Shahr-e Sukhteh the fields are fashioned by the coils of a snake. Touraj Daryaee —on the subject of the first written mention of early precursors of backgammon—writes:.
The use of dice for the game is another indication of its Indic origin, since dice and gambling were a favorite pastime in ancient India.
According to the historical legend, the Indian king Dewisarm sends his minister Taxritos to Persia with the game of chess , and a letter challenging Sasanian King Khosrow I to solve the riddle or rationale for the game.
Khosrow asks for three days to decipher the game, but initially no-one in the court is able to make any progress. On the third day, Khosrow's minister, Wuzurgmihr, successfully rises and explains the logic of the game.
As a reciprocal challenge, Wuzurgmihr constructs the game of backgammon and delivers it to the Indian king who is unable to decipher the game.
In the 11th century Shahnameh , the Persian poet Ferdowsi credits Burzoe with the invention of the tables game nard in the 6th century.
He describes an encounter between Burzoe and a Raja visiting from India. The Raja introduces the game of chess , and Burzoe demonstrates nard , played with dice made from ivory and teak.
Murray details many versions of backgammon; modern Nard is noted there as being the same as backgammon and maybe dating back to — AD in the Babylonian Talmud,  although others believe the Talmud references the Greek race game Kubeia.
Backgammon or nardi Armenian: The word is derived from Persian word nard Persian: There are two games of nardi commonly played:. Set-up and rules the same as backgammon.
A game which starts with all fifteen checkers placed in one line-on point and on point. The two players move their checkers in opposing directions, from the point towards the 1-point, or home board.
In long nardi one checker by itself can block a point. There is no hitting in long nardi. The objective of the game is bearing all checkers off the board.
There is no doubling cube. As today, each player had 15 checkers and used cubical dice with sides numbered one to six. The only differences with modern backgammon were the use of an extra die three rather than two and the starting of all pieces off the board with them entering in the same way that pieces on the bar enter in modern backgammon.
Zeno, who was white, had a stack of seven checkers, three stacks of two checkers and two blots , checkers that stand alone on a point and are therefore in danger of being put outside the board by an incoming opponent checker.
Zeno threw the three dice with which the game was played and obtained 2, 5 and 6. As in backgammon, Zeno could not move to a space occupied by two opponent black pieces.
The white and black checkers were so distributed on the points that the only way to use all of the three results, as required by the game rules, was to break the three stacks of two checkers into blots, exposing them and ruining the game for Zeno.
In Roman times this game was also known as alea , and a likely apocryphal Latin story linked this name, and the game, to a Trojan soldier named Alea.
Race board games involving dice have existed for millennia in the Near East and eastern Mediterranean, including the game senet of Ancient Egypt.
The ancient Egyptian game senet was excavated, along with illustrations, from Egyptian royal tombs dating to BC. The usual Tavla rules are same as in the neighboring Arab countries and Greece, as established over a millennium ago,  but there are also many quite different variants.
Backgammon is popular among Greeks. It is a game in which Greeks usually tease their opponent and they create a lively atmosphere.
The game is called "Tavli", derived in Byzantine times from the Latin word "tabula". Set-up and rules the same as backgammon, except that backgammons count as gammons 2 points and there is no doubling cube.
A game where one checker can trap another checker on the same point. A game where one checker by itself can block a point.
Also known as Acey-deucey where all checkers are off the board, and you enter by rolling either doubles or acey-deucey. These games are played one after another, in matches of three, five, or seven points.
Players use the same pair of dice in turns. How do I collect kilometres? Who is in the lead? Data protection and liability. When can I get involved?
The local coordinators are responsible for preparing and running the campaign — please contact them first should you have any questions. Once your municipality has registered, you can sign up for the cyclist portal , then either join an existing team or form a new one.
If you decide to form a new team, you will automatically be designated the team captain. Teams of just two people are allowed though. Everything classified as a bicycle in the German Highway Code StVO is permitted — this includes pedelecs with an engine output of up to W.
For example some begin with eight cards each. In the normal game, you may always use your turn to draw a card. However, some people play that you may only draw if you are unable to play - if you can play you must.
Some allow more than one card to be drawn - either up to a fixed number of cards, after which if you still cannot or will not play the turn passes to the next player.
Others require you to continue drawing until either you can play or the deck is exhausted. The special card that changes suit is nearly always the Eight, at least in places where the game is called Crazy Eights.
In many countries and regions the equivalent game goes by other names and a different card may be used to change suit - for example in the British game Switch it is often the Ace, and some other variants use the Jack or the Seven.
Some play that you can play an Eight at any time but when playing an Eight you do not nominate a suit. The next player must simply match the suit of the Eight you played or play another eight.
One correspondent Szu Kay Wong gives the rule an Eight can be played on any card, but the player can only nominate a different suit if the Eight matches the rank or suit of the previous card.
Some players use jacks or aces rather than eights as the cards which have the power to change suit.
Some allow a player holding two or more equal ranked cards to play them all at once, provided that the first of them is a legal play.
If they are special cards all the special effects take place. For example if the top card of the play pile is the 5, the next player could play 9, 9 and 9 in that order, and the next player would have to play a 9 or a heart.
If the equal cards are special cards all the special effects take place. For example if an Ace reverses direction, playing two Aces together will reverse it twice, leaving the direction of play unchanged.
If a Queen skips the next player, a pair of Queens will skip two players in a two-player game that would be your opponent's turn and your own next turn, leaving your opponent to play next.
If a Two requires the next player to pick up twos cards, a pair of Twos will require the next player to pick up 4 cards or play another Two.
Some groups have a special word that must be said by a player when they have just one card left. On the other hand, some groups do not require a player with one card to warn the other players.
When the stock pile is exhausted, the rules given in most books to not envisage shuffling the play pile to make a new stock.
Instead they specify that play continues without drawing. A player who cannot or does not wish to play just passes. If all pass, the game is blocked.
Play stops and everyone scores for the cards remaining in their hands. I think that in practice this version of the game is rarely played.
This variant has become popular in North America. Each player begins the game with a score of 8, and eight cards are dealt to each player.
When a player gets rid of all their cards, this does not end the play. Instead, the player subtracts 1 from their score, and is immediately dealt a new hand of cards equal in size to their new score.
The other players keep the cards that they have and the play continues. The winner of the game is the first player who reduces their score to zero.
Each player's current score determines the rank of the card that is wild for them. So at the start of the game everyone has Eight as their wild card, and the game is like normal Crazy Eights.
But later in the game it is possible for each player to have tyheir own, different rank of wild card, which can be played on any card and allows the player to nominate the suit to be played next.
Each time a player runs out of cards, their wild card changes, first from Eight to Seven, then Six and so on down to Ace. When a player with a score of 1 and Ace as wild card runs out of cards, their score becomes 0 and they win the game.
The changing wild card introduces several new situations and players need to agree how to resolve these. The following rules are suggested.
Here is a blog post and discussion about CrazyCountdown describing a version in which Jacks skip the next player, Twos make the next player draw two cards or play another Two as usual, and the Queen of Spades makes the next player draw five cards.
Multiple cards of equal rank can be played together. No 'reverse direction' card is mentioned. Some groups allow a card of equal rank to be played on a wild card even if it is not in the called suit.
For example a wild 5 is played calling 'diamonds' but the next player plays 5 instead of a diamond, even though 5 is not wild for them.
This rule is the most frequent cause of arguments in this game so it is a good idea to agree in advance whether your house rules allow this play or not.Freispiele sind aber auch ein typischer Gewinn bei Automatenspielen. Parallel dazu sind die Sicherheitsvorkehrungen bei Mr. Demzufolge fiel im Mr. Durch die Nutzung dieser Website erklären Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen und der Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden. Lust auf ein Abenteuer mit dem mutigen Entdecker Gonzo? Sobald die Walzen wieder zum Stillstand kommen, kommen bestimmte Symbol-Kombinationen und Muster zum Vorschein, von denen manche einen Gewinn symbolisieren. Diese progressiven Jackpots können zu einer gewaltigen Summe anwachsen, die in manchen Fällen auch mehrere Millionen betragen kann. Live Wetten Sie haben die Möglichkeit, in unserem innovativen Sportwetten 2. Spielen Sie erst einmal gratis. Besuchen Sie auch die exklusiven Live-Tische in deutscher Sprache. For the bearoff phase, backgammon software usually relies on a database containing precomputed equities for all possible bearoff positions. The Murphy rule may be invoked with a maximum number of automatic doubles allowed and that limit is agreed to Beste Spielothek in Koprein finden to a game or match commencing. If a Book of ra mystery gewinn requires the next player to pick up twos cards, a pair of Twos will require the next player to pick up 4 cards or play another Two. The strength of these programs lies in their neural networks' weights tables, which are the result of months of training. The direction is reversed and the next player in the new direction must play the nominated suit or a wild card. Last Card Some groups have a special word that must be said keno deutschland a player when they have just one card left. Rules of participation … Aims When can I get involved? It is a game in which Greeks usually tease their opponent and they create a lively atmosphere. For the film, see Backgammon film. Using a backgame as an initial strategy is usually unsuccessful.
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If you decide to form a new team, you will automatically be designated the team captain. Teams of just two people are allowed though.
Everything classified as a bicycle in the German Highway Code StVO is permitted — this includes pedelecs with an engine output of up to W.
If you do not have internet access, simply submit your kilometre log to your local coordinator at the end of each week.
Cycling competitions as well as indoor training on stationary bikes are excluded here. It does not matter where the kilometres were covered — after all, climate protection knows no city or state boundaries.
It is possible to record the kilometres cycled by multiple cyclists e. You can join or form a team up until the very last day of the day campaign period.
Kilometres can be entered retroactively as long as they were covered during the day period. In a two-player game an Ace has no effect. Draw cards When a Two is played the next player must either draw two cards or play another Two an Eight cannot be played in this case.
If several Twos have been played by consecutive players, the next player must either play another Two or draw two cards for each two in the sequence.
The penalty cards cannot be played in the same turn - after the penalty cards have been drawn, the turn passes to the following player, who can continue with any card of the same suit as the last Two, or another Two or an Eight to change suit.
Variations Crazy Eights is one of the easiest games to modify by adding variations. Deal The number of cards dealt to each player initially may vary.
Drawing Cards In the normal game, you may always use your turn to draw a card. Some allow the drawn card to be played immediately if it is a legal play.
Changing Suit The special card that changes suit is nearly always the Eight, at least in places where the game is called Crazy Eights.
Some play that you can only play an Eight that matches the previous card's suit or rank. Multiple Equal Cards Some allow a player holding two or more equal ranked cards to play them all at once, provided that the first of them is a legal play.
Last Card Some groups have a special word that must be said by a player when they have just one card left.
End of Stock Pile When the stock pile is exhausted, the rules given in most books to not envisage shuffling the play pile to make a new stock.
When a wild card is played, the player nominates a suit. The next card played must either be a card of that suit or the player's own wild card.
My score is 6. I play the 6 and nominate hearts. If the next player's score is 7 that player must either play a heart, or play a wild 7 to nominate a suit, or draw a card.
The next player is not allowed to play for example the 6 even though the rank is the same as my wild Six. When a player's wild card rank also has a special effect, the player nominates a suit and the card also acts as a special effect card as follows.
The next player is skipped and the following player must play the nominated suit or a wild card. For example, suppose that our house rule is that 4 skips the next player, 4 is my wild card, and I play the 4 nominating diamonds.
The next player is skipped and the player after that must play a diamond or one of their own wild cards. The direction is reversed and the next player in the new direction must play the nominated suit or a wild card.
For example, suppose that Aces reverse direction. We are playing clockwise and I play the A nominating spades.
The direction reverses to anticlockwise and the player to my right must play a spade or one of their own wild cards. The next player must either draw two cards or play a Two of the nominated suit.
For example, the players in order and their scores are A 2 , B 5 , C 6. Player A plays the 2 nominating clubs. Now B must either play the 2 or draw two cards.
If B plays the 2, C must either draw four cards or play any Two since the 2 was not wild. If B draws 2 cards, C must play a club or a wild 6 or draw a card, since clubs was the suit nominated by A.
Assuming that we are playing with a single deck, player B is forced to draw two cards, and C will then have to play a diamond or a wild card.
Playing with a double deck, B's only legal play to avoid drawing two cards would be the other 2. Other variants described on this and other websites See the following pages on this site: Crates , described by Richard Hussong.
Spoons , described by Bruce McCosar. Last One , contributed by Mark Alexander. Bartok , in which the rules are modified during the game. Mao , in which the rules may not be discussed.
More pages with rules of Crazy Eights variants: Justin Tuijl's description of Jack Change , another variation.
Crazy Eights rules are available on the Card Game Heaven site. This page is maintained by John McLeod john pagat.
If one or both numbers do not allow a legal move, the player forfeits that portion of the roll and his or her turn ends. If moves can be made according to either one die or the other, but not both, the higher number must be used.
If one die is unable to be moved, but such a move is made possible by the moving of the other die, that move is compulsory.
In the course of a move, a checker may land on any point that is unoccupied or is occupied by one or more of the player's own checkers.
It may also land on a point occupied by exactly one opposing checker, or "blot". In this case, the blot has been "hit", and is placed in the middle of the board on the bar that divides the two sides of the playing surface.
A checker may never land on a point occupied by two or more opposing checkers; thus, no point is ever occupied by checkers from both players simultaneously.
Checkers placed on the bar must re-enter the game through the opponent's home board before any other move can be made. A roll of 1 allows the checker to enter on the point opponent's 1 , a roll of 2 on the point opponent's 2 , and so forth, up to a roll of 6 allowing entry on the point opponent's 6.
Checkers may not enter on a point occupied by two or more opposing checkers. Checkers can enter on unoccupied points, or on points occupied by a single opposing checker; in the latter case, the single checker is hit and placed on the bar.
More than one checker can be on the bar at a time. A player may not move any other checkers until all checkers on the bar belonging to that player have re-entered the board.
If the opponent's home board is completely "closed" i. When all of a player's checkers are in that player's home board, that player may start removing them; this is called "bearing off".
A roll of 1 may be used to bear off a checker from the 1-point, a 2 from the 2-point, and so on. If all of a player's checkers are on points lower than the number showing on a particular die, the player may use that die to bear off one checker from the highest occupied point.
When bearing off, a player may also move a lower die roll before the higher even if that means the full value of the higher die is not fully utilized.
For example, if a player has exactly one checker remaining on the 6-point, and rolls a 6 and a 1, the player may move the 6-point checker one place to the 5-point with the lower die roll of 1, and then bear that checker off the 5-point using the die roll of 6; this is sometimes useful tactically.
As before, if there is a way to use all moves showing on the dice, by moving checkers within the home board or bearing them off, the player must do so.
If the opponent has not yet borne off any checkers when the game ends, the winner scores a gammon , which counts for double stakes.
If the opponent has not yet borne off any checkers and has some on the bar or in the winner's home board, the winner scores a backgammon , which counts for triple stakes.
To speed up match play and to provide an added dimension for strategy, a doubling cube is usually used.
The doubling cube is not a die to be rolled but rather a marker with the numbers 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 inscribed on its sides, to denote the current stake.
At the start of each game, the doubling cube is placed on the bar with the number 64 showing; the cube is then said to be "centered, on 1".
When the cube is centered, the player about to roll may propose that the game be played for twice the current stakes. Their opponent must either accept "take" the doubled stakes or resign "drop" the game immediately.
Whenever a player accepts doubled stakes, the cube is placed on their side of the board with the corresponding power of two facing upward, to indicate that the right to re-double belongs exclusively to the player who last accepted a double.
For instance, if the cube showed the number 2 and a player wanted to redouble the stakes to put it at 4, the opponent choosing to drop the redouble would lose two, or twice the original stake.
There is no limit on the number of redoubles. Although 64 is the highest number depicted on the doubling cube, the stakes may rise to , , and so on.
In money games, a player is often permitted to " beaver " when offered the cube, doubling the value of the game again, while retaining possession of the cube.
A variant of the doubling cube "beaver" is the " raccoon ". Players who doubled their opponent, seeing the opponent beaver the cube, may in turn then double the stakes once again "raccoon" as part of that cube phase before any dice are rolled.
The opponent retains the doubling cube. White doubles Black to 2 points, Black accepts then beavers the cube to 4 points; White, confident of a win, raccoons the cube to 8 points, while Black retains the cube.
Such a move adds greatly to the risk of having to face the doubling cube coming back at 8 times its original value when first doubling the opponent offered at 2 points, counter offered at 16 points should the luck of the dice change.
Some players may opt to invoke The Murphy rule or the "automatic double rule". If both opponents roll the same opening number, the doubling cube is incremented on each occasion yet remains in the middle of the board, available to either player.
The Murphy rule may be invoked with a maximum number of automatic doubles allowed and that limit is agreed to prior to a game or match commencing.
When a player decides to double the opponent, the value is then a double of whatever face value is shown e. The Murphy rule is not an official rule in backgammon and is rarely, if ever, seen in use at officially sanctioned tournaments.
The Jacoby rule , named after Oswald Jacoby , allows gammons and backgammons to count for their respective double and triple values only if the cube has already been offered and accepted.
This encourages a player with a large lead to double, possibly ending the game, rather than to play it to conclusion hoping for a gammon or backgammon.
The Jacoby rule is widely used in money play but is not used in match play. The Crawford rule , named after John R. Crawford , is designed to make match play more equitable for the player in the lead.
If a player is one point away from winning a match, that player's opponent will always want to double as early as possible in order to catch up.
Whether the game is worth one point or two, the trailing player must win to continue the match. To balance the situation, the Crawford rule requires that when a player first reaches a score one point short of winning, neither player may use the doubling cube for the following game, called the Crawford game.
After the Crawford game, normal use of the doubling cube resumes. The Crawford rule is routinely used in tournament match play.
If the Crawford rule is in effect, then another option is the Holland rule , named after Tim Holland , which stipulates that after the Crawford game, a player cannot double until after at least two rolls have been played by each side.
It was common in tournament play in the s but is now rarely used. There are many variants of standard backgammon rules.
Some are played primarily throughout one geographic region, and others add new tactical elements to the game. Variants commonly alter the starting position, restrict certain moves, or assign special value to certain dice rolls, but in some geographic regions even the rules and directions of the checkers' movement change, rendering the game fundamentally different.
Acey-deucey is a variant of backgammon in which players start with no checkers on the board, and must bear them on at the beginning of the game.
The roll of is given special consideration, allowing the player, after moving the 1 and the 2, to select any desired doubles move.
A player also receives an extra turn after a roll of or of doubles. Hypergammon is a variant of backgammon in which players have only three checkers on the board, starting with one each on the , and points.
The game has been strongly solved , meaning that exact equities are available for all 32 million possible positions. There are also different starting positions.
Nackgammon is a variant of backgammon invented by Nick "Nack" Ballard  in which players start with one less checker on the six point and midpoint and two checkers on the 23 point.
Russian backgammon is a variant described in as: In this variant, doubles are more powerful: Gul Bara and Tapa are also variants of the game popular in southeastern Europe and Turkey.
The play will iterate among Backgammon, Gul Bara, and Tapa until one of the players reaches a score of 7 or 5. Coan ki is an ancient Chinese board game that is very similar.
Plakoto , Fevga and Portes are three versions of backgammon played in Greece. Together, the three are referred to as Tavli. Other minor variants to the standard game are common among casual players in certain regions.
For instance, only allowing a maximum of five checkers on any point Britain  or disallowing "hit-and-run" in your home board Middle East.
Backgammon has an established opening theory , although it is less detailed than that of chess. The tree of positions expands rapidly because of the number of possible dice rolls and the moves available on each turn.
Recent computer analysis has offered more insight on opening plays, but the midgame is reached quickly. After the opening, backgammon players frequently rely on some established general strategies, combining and switching among them to adapt to the changing conditions of a game.
A blot has the highest probability of being hit when it is 6 points away from an opponent's checker see picture. Strategies can derive from that.
The most direct one is simply to avoid being hit, trapped, or held in a stand-off. A "running game" describes a strategy of moving as quickly as possible around the board, and is most successful when a player is already ahead in the race.
As the game progresses, this player may gain an advantage by hitting an opponent's blot from the anchor, or by rolling large doubles that allow the checkers to escape into a running game.
The "priming game" involves building a wall of checkers, called a prime, covering a number of consecutive points. This obstructs opposing checkers that are behind the prime.
A checker trapped behind a six-point prime cannot escape until the prime is broken. Because the opponent has difficulty re-entering from the bar or escaping, a player can quickly gain a running advantage and win the game, often with a gammon.
A "backgame" is a strategy that involves holding two or more anchors in an opponent's home board while being substantially behind in the race.
The backgame is generally used only to salvage a game wherein a player is already significantly behind. Using a backgame as an initial strategy is usually unsuccessful.
For example, players may position all of their blots in such a way that the opponent must roll a 2 in order to hit any of them, reducing the probability of being hit more than once.
Many positions require a measurement of a player's standing in the race, for example, in making a doubling cube decision, or in determining whether to run home and begin bearing off.
The minimum total of pips needed to move a player's checkers around and off the board is called the "pip count".
The difference between the two players' pip counts is frequently used as a measure of the leader's racing advantage.
Players often use mental calculation techniques to determine pip counts in live play. Backgammon is played in two principal variations, "Money" and "Match" play.
Money play means that every point counts evenly and every game stands alone, whether money is actually being wagered or not.